Roman Aqueducts and Water Supply (Duckworth Archaeology)

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Located about 25 miles south of San Ignacio in the foothills of the Maya Mountains, Caracol occupies an area of some 88 square kilometers and once supported a population of about 140,000 people in the sixth century AD. The area included mostly volcanic mountains to porous limestone, also referred to as the lowlands in the more central regions. Balles Prize in Critical Thinking, to be presented by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry at the CFI Summit in October. In this entertaining and compelling narrative, Thomas Cahill tells the story of how Europe evolved front the classical age of Rome to the medieval era.

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Studying Culture: A Practical Introduction

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Discuss constructions of white... ‘heroism’ in Africa, focussing on a critical analysis of two journalistic or non-fiction texts. Courtesy of the Islamisches Museum, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin called ornamental in the sense that their only apparent purpose was to beautify the buildings in which they were installed, and their relationship to the architecture is arbitrary. Councils of elders or chiefs ruled many of the world’s farming villages.

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The Sumerian World

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Then, a contingent of Israelites from the hills of Galilee arrived somewhere on America’s east coast, spreading through the indigenous cultures, acting like missionaries and igniting the cultural florescence of the mound-building cultures we know today as the Hopewell (as well as the subsequent Mississippian). By 4500 BCE those archaeologists call Ubaidians were living in towns near where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers emptied into the Persian Gulf. Thus the major styles of Etruria are called by the same names as those of Greece.

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Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed

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The groups which informed our study include: Heretics, Jews, Homosexuals, Prostitutes, Lepers, and Witches. (Naturally an argument could be made for the expansion of this list). You will find an excellent general site about ancient Egypt for students of all ages. - illustrated - From ancient-egypt-online.com - http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ Ancient Egypt: Stayin' Alive __ Good website for introduce younger students to ancient Egypt and the site was even created by younger students.

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A History of the Reformation, Volume 2

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The lives of city dwellers differed from those of nomads. She was buttoned up to the chin like her husband. In 2012, I wrote an article arguing the assumption that Western governments have the arrogance to decide the kind of regime in Baghdad, Kabul, and other Muslim countries, while they would hesitate to do the same for predominantly Christian-Caucasian European countries, Canada or Australia. Cattle were introduced from Asia, as probably were domestic sheep and goats.

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The Aesthetics of Cultural Studies

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He later wrote of this in his log: They ... brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. The developments that led to England�s use of coal in industry arguably began when the first sailboats plied Mesopotamian rivers, as it was the first time that non-muscle power was significantly used.� When Hellenic innovators developed the watermill, windmill, and the first steam engine, they laid the path to the Industrial Revolution. �The rise of waterpower and wind power in medieval Europe, first with windmills and then with oceangoing sailing ships, already had Europe riding an obvious energy wave, even if thermodynamics and other energy sciences were not yet invented.� The Domesday Survey, published in 1086, recorded that 85% of the English countryside was deforested, as well as 90% of England�s arable land, and the remaining forests were largely reserved for royalty and nobility for hunting.� But studies of lake and river sediments show that most of England�s deforestation had been accomplished before Rome invaded two millennia ago. [755] � By 900, the brown bear was nearly extinct on the British Isles and the wolf was not far behind .� English coal had been mined by Romans, and China also mined some coal, but deforested England became the world�s first nation to rely on coal. �As the High Middle Ages were ending in the 1200s, deforested and cooling England began turning to coal.� Most of Earth�s coal came from a brief geological period before any organism learned to digest lignin, and geological processes made trees into today�s coal deposits. �The level of geological �processing� determines the grade of coal, and the typical progression is from peat to lignite to bituminous coal to anthracite, which is like a rock and the cleanest burning.� Pennsylvania�s anthracite deposits were the most desirable coal in the USA, and Wales has anthracite deposits.� But England generally burned bituminous coal, and pollution issues were obvious from the beginning.� In 12 57, Queen Eleanor visited Nottingham, and the coal smoke used in local industry drove her away, as she could not stand the smell and feared for her health. [756] � In 1285, a commission was established in London, led by Eleanor�s son Edward I, to address the coal smoke problem.� In 1306, coal was banned in London, to little practical effect.� Coal smoke was so noxious that it was not yet used in homes.� Fuel-hungry operations, such as blacksmiths and brewers, are where England�s early coal pollution originated. [757] � As with the �green effect� of the Mongol hordes on much of Asia, the Black Death gave England�s forests a brief reprieve when half of England died.� England�s population did not begin to grow again until the 1500s, when it was in the Little Ice Age�s grip, which lasted until the 20th century.

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A history of the gipsies: With specimens of the gipsy

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For no earthly good only making all the kind saints in heaven angry, and our mother ashamed in her place amongst the blessed.'' I believed she was crazy. You know his big, irresistible laugh.. . .'' ``I understand,'' interrupted Mills. ``All this is purely accidental. At one site, Abaj Takalik, a mixture of Olmec and Maya art forms has been unearthed. Many Persian doctors such as 'Ayn al-Mulk of Shiraz also traveled to India at this time to usher in golden age of Islamic medicine in the subcontinent and to plant the seed of the Islamic medical tradition which continues to flourish to this day in the soil of that land.

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A short history of Western civilization

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The Maya’s astronomical skills were so advanced they could even predict solar eclipses, and an impressive and sophisticated observatory structure remains on the site today. I sat there like a fool not knowing what to say.'' ``I didn't feel in the humour, because, don't you see, I had been incidentally given to understand that I was an insignificant and superfluous person who had better get out of the way of serious people.'' She nodded with an amused air of understanding and I could see that she was interested. ``Anything more?'' she asked, with a flash of radiant eagerness in all her person and bending slightly forward towards me. ``Oh, it's hardly worth mentioning.

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Writ in Water (B&W Edition)

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Essentially the work of the popes, these Holy Wars first of all helped to strengthen pontifical authority; they afforded the popes an opportunity to interfere in the wars between Christian princes, while the temporal and spiritual privileges which they conferred upon crusaders virtually made the latter their subjects. The first major monument of Persian painting in the Mongol period is a group of manuscripts of the Jami‘ altawarikh. And, on the very eve of the fall of "corrupt Byzantium," the glorious flowering of mystical contemplation on Mount Athos and the Renaissance in art in Philosophy which was to nourish the Western Renaissance too.

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The Clash of Civilizations: An Intrusive Gospel in Japanese

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Hannu travelled along the Red Sea to Punt, and sailed to what is now part of eastern Ethiopia and Somalia. Just as mitochondria were �invented,� somewhere between 1.6 bya and 600 mya a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium and both survived, and that cyanobacterium became the ancestor of all chloroplasts, which is the photosynthetic organelle in all plants. [108] � As with similar previous events, it appears that it happened only once, and all plants are descended from that unique event. [109] � The invention of the chloroplast quickly led to the first multicellular eukaryotes, algae, which were the first plants.� The first algae fossils are from about 1.2 bya. [110] � Most algae species are not called plants, as they are not descended from that instance when a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium.� The non-plant algae, such as kelp, also have chloroplasts, from various �envelopment� events when algae chloroplasts were eaten and the grazers and chloroplasts survived. �Below is the general outline of the tree of life today, in which bacteria and archaea combined to make eukaryotic cells, and in which the bacterium enveloped into a protist to make plants, and all complex life developed from protists.� (Source: Wikimedia Commons) A free radical is an atom, molecule, or ion with an unpaired valence electron or an unfilled shell, and thus seeks to capture an electron.� The electron transport chain used to create ATP in a mitochondrion leaks electrons, which creates free radicals, which will take that electron from wherever they can get it.� Aerobic respiration creates some of the most dangerous free radicals, particularly the hydroxyl radical .� The more hydroxyl radicals created, the more damage inflicted on neighboring molecules.� Another free radical created by that electron leakage is superoxide, which can be neutralized by antioxidants, but there is no avoiding the damage produced by the hydroxyl radical. [111] � Tho se kinds of free radicals are called reactive oxygen species (�ROS�).� ROS are not universally deleterious to life processes, but if their production spins out of control, the oxidative stress inflicted by the ROS can cripple biological structures.� ROS damage can cause programmed cell death, called apoptosis, which is a maintenance process for complex life.� Antioxidants are one way that organisms defend against oxidative stress, and vitamin C is a standard antioxidant.� Antioxidants usually serve multiple purposes in cellular chemistry, and antioxidant supplements generally do not work as advertised.� They not only do not target the reactions that might be beneficial to prevent, but they can interfere with reactions that are necessary for life processes.� Antioxidant supplements are blunt instruments that can cause more harm than good. [112] � There is plenty of uncertainty and controversy regarding just how connected the issue may be, but it appears that keeping some DNA at the mitochondria, in order to have more efficient and flexible energy generation, helped lead to the genetic phenomenon known as sexual reproduction .� Bacteria swap DNA in reproduction and have done so since life�s early days, but the process of meiosis, which is when two parent life forms split and recombine their DNA to produce an offspring, is unique to eukaryotes, and that form of reproduction appeared between 1.2 and 1.0 bya.� As w ith other seminal events, it seems that sexual reproduction using meiosis happened once, and all eukaryotes that reproduce sexually are descended from that one instance .� Protists were the first organisms to reproduce sexually .� Again, the dates for these events are rather rough, but if the creation of a chloroplast happened once and the creation of sexual reproduction happened once, then sexual reproduction would have needed to come before the chloroplast, as many plants produce sexually. �If it turns out that the chloroplast really is 1.6 billion years old, then the current date for sexual reproduction would need to be pushed back, or the �sex was invented once� idea would have to be discarded, and biologists would probably decide that the date of sex appearing would need to be pushed back, even without fossil evidence of it.

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